• Answer Key to Unit 1 Chemistry of Life Review Sheet

    1. 3; 2

    2. cytosine, thymine

    3. polymer; monomer; polymer; polymer; polymer; monomer

    4. isomers

    5. CH

    6. 4

    7. amino acids

    8. starch, glycogen

    9. cellulose, chitin

    10. chitin

    11. steroid (lipid)

    12. phospholipid

    13. True

    14. deoxyribose

    15. A T C G

    16. True

    17. Sugars and phosphates

    18. nitrogen bases

    19. sugar, phosphate, base

    20. true

    21. R

    22. True

    23. True

    24. True

    25. yes

    26. yes

    27. 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol

    28. when proteins (enzymes) lose their shape and stop working

    29. no

    30. yes

    31. extreme temperature and pH

    32. True

    33. high energy bonds

    34. True

    35. amino and acid (carboxyl)

    36. DNA, RNA, ATP

    37. glycerol

    38. glycogen

    39. glucose (alpha)

    40. 4 fused rings

    41. amino acids

    42. amino and acid group

    43. Use your notes to sketch.  Formulas are COOH, NH2, and PO4

    44. Use packet to sketch.  Head is hydrophilic and tails are hydrophobic.

    45. nucleotides


          fatty acids; glycerol

          amino acids

    46. Look at your packet page 15.

    47. dotted lines with a H on one side

    48. saturated fats have only single C-C bonds (saturated with H) and unsaturated fats have a C=C double bond (some H are missing)

    49. TTGCAG

    50. unequally

    51. amino acids

    52. covalent

    53. sequence of amino acids

    54. when local areas start to form alpha helix or beta sheet

    55. twisting and folding into a 3-D shape

    56. when 2 or more polypeptides exist 

    57. hydrogen

    58. Use your notes and packet.

    59. ionic

    60. Use your notes and packet.

    61. 5' end attaches to the phosphate

    62. False

    63. Starch is made of alpha glucose and forms long brancing chains.  Cellulose is made of beta glucose and forms unbrached chains and tight fibers.

    64. Starch functions as energy storage; provides glucose when needed for energy.  Cellulose functions as support structure; it makes up cell walls.

    65. Starch's branching allows enzymes to fit and simulataneously break down the starch releasing glucose quickly for energy source in cellular respiration.  Cellulose's tight fibers make it strong for support and it cannot be digested.

    66. Look at page 10 in packet.

    67. remove excess H+ and OH-

    68. hydrophilic;hydrophobic; hydrophilic

    69. 2

    70. 13

    71. 7

    72. 1000X

    73. decreases; increases

    74. H+; OH-

    75. 7

    76. Look at your notes to sketch.  O is negative and H is positive.

    77. Polar and H bonds 

    78. dehydration synthesis

    79. Look at your notes and pick 3.

    80. negative, orbital;  neutral, nucleus;  positive, nucleus





    Answer Key to 2D & 2E Review Sheet 

    1. So it will be small enough to pass through the cell membrane of cells
    2. Lysosome
    3. Moist, thin, in contact with transport system, high surface area
    4. 90 to 95%
    5. Mutualism
    6. Lichens, nitrogen fixing bacteria and legumes, microbes in cow guts
    7. Producers turning energy of sun into organic compounds (food)
    8. Energy and biomass are lost as you go up a food chain (10% passed on)
    9. Decreases by 90% only 10% moves on
    10. Loss of energy
    11. Recycle matter
    12. You got this!!
    13. One way
    14. One way
    15. Food vacuole and lysosome
    16. Food vacuole and lysosome
    17. lungs
    18. diffusion through plasma membrane
    19. gills
    20. spiracles and tracheae tubes
    21. skin
    22. still skin oops
    23. nephridia
    24. flame cells
    25. malpighian tubules
    26. contractile vacuoles
    27. kidneys
    28. biotic – living; abiotic – nonliving
    29. they live in water where it is immediately diluted
    30. saves energy by not having to convert it to something else
    31. water
    32. O2
    33. Hemoglobin of red blood cells
    34. Red
    35. Secrete urine and mucus
    36. Abdomen
    37. Uric acid à urea à ammonia
    38. Marine fish water wants to move out of the fish into the water (more stuff); freshwater fish water wants to move into the fish (more stuff)
    39. Marine fish rarely urinate and constantly drink; freshwater fish rarely drink and constantly urinate
    40. Blood vessels dilate, swelling, warmth, redness, pain
    41. Brown tree snakes in Guam, ate all the birds almost to extinction
    42. Review 2, 3, and 4 chambered hearts, and their blood flow, advantages and disadvantages

    2E Review sheet answers:

    1. In development to take shape (webbed fingers), prevent cancer cells, prevent virus infected cells from dividing, to balance the # of total cells in the body
    2. Yes
    3. Capases
    4. Keeps it constant
    5. White blood cells
    6. Production of the shape and form of the body and includes pattern formation
    7. Gray crescent, yes
    8. Induction
    9. Dorsal lip
    10. Yes
    11. Endoderm, ectoderm
    12. Activate the genes to become a specific body part
    13. True
    14. Indeterminate
    15. Zygote, morula, blastula, gastrula
    16. Anterior
    17. One
    18. Auxins build up on the dark side and cause more elongation on that side; auxins bind to receptors and start proton pumps, protons are pumped into cell wall making it acidic and weak, ions enter the cell wall, water follows and stretches it
    19. Prevent; prevent
    20. Instinct, fixed action patterns, imprinting
    21. Specific stimulus causes the behavior, successful solution to common problem, innate behavior that saves energy, increases fitness, once started must be completed
    22. Any red belly stimulus causes response, prevents confrontation, defends territory, innate
    23. Simple less complex animals
    24. Negative reinforcement is when an animal does something and the response is undesirable so they don’t do it again, positive reinforcement is when an animal does something and the response is good so they keep doing it
    25. Classical conditioning
    26. Imprinting
    27. Gastrulation
    28. Mitosis
    29. Vegetal
    30. Induction
    31. They divide but do not grow so individual cells get smaller
    32. Ectoderm: skin and nervous system  Mesoderm: muscle, bone, blood  Endoderm: inner lining of digestive tract
    33. Mammals, reptiles, birds,
    34. Fertilization
    35. Gastrulation
    36. Formation of one organ after contact with inducer cells of another part
    37. Competition  for resources and one species will eliminate the other, competitive exclusion
    38. One species will eliminate the other one
    39. Fundamental niche is a fantasy niche where one could survive, realized niched is reality where you are limited to a smaller area because other species are around
    40. Niches
    41. Yes
    42. Auxins on the dark side make those cells elongate more than cells on the light side
    43. On the dark side
    44. Apoptosis will breakdown and recycle materials
    45. No
    46. It will induce the new cells around it to become a specific body part
    47. No
    48. Yes
    49. Must have a piece of the gray crescent in order to develop into a new tadpole
    50. Electrical shock sent over egg, builds a fertilization membrane
    51. The sperm must release a protein that binds to and fits a receptor on the egg
    52. Contains digestive enzymes to get into the egg
    53. Water, temperature
    54. They can stay dormant until environmental conditions are favorable before they start to grow
    55. Deuterostomes form anus first, protostomes form mouth first
    56. It was a safe place for them and they survived so it should also work for their offspring
    57. At night time
    58. Make a person sleepy
    59. If the rats get food, they will keep pressing the lever, if the rats get shocked, they will stop pressing the lever
    60. Amnion; cushions embryo, allantois; stores wastes, chorion; gas exchange, yolk sac; contains food




    1. Kinases 
    2. Virus; Retrovirus 
    3. Transposons 
    4. DNA methylation 
    5. miRNA 
    6. siRNA 
    7. Repressor 
    8. On; synthesis or building 
    9. Heterochromatin; No 
    10. Enhancers (and subsequently general transcription factors and mediator proteins) 
    11. Enhancers, activators, general transcription factors, mediator proteins, DNA bending proteins 
    12. Low; Long 
    13. Frameshift  
    14. Silent 
    15. Freedom of the third base in the genetic code, you can often change the third base in the codon without actually changing the amino acid 
    16. When a stop codon occurs in before the end of the protein and it stops making the protein so it is incomplete 
    17. No; Yes; Yes; Yes 
    18. Reverse transcriptase 
    19. Off: It would be a picture with the repressor attached to the operator. 
    20. Mutations 
    21. Transduction
    22. STR’s
    23. Splices out introns
    24. Splice out different introns or different parts of the DNA; differential gene splicing
    25. They use different parts of the DNA, use different genes, turn on and off different genes
    26. The enzyme RNA polymerase cannot fit in to read it
    27. Female cats have 2 X’s (XX) One of the X’s is a Barr body and cannot be transcribed so whatever is on the other X is the only color fur seen. XB or XY
    28. Inversion is when a segment is inverted 180 degrees; Translocation is when a segment breaks off and attaches to a non-homologous chromosome; Deletion is when a segment breaks off and is “lost”; Duplication is when a segment breaks off and attaches to its homologous chromosome which gives repeating genes on one chromosome
    29. You will get a Turner syndrome female or a sterile female
    30. They fit together with specific shapes, they must have matching shapes 
    31. Mutations; new alleles are created; Sexual reproduction combines new combinations of alleles each offspring; Crossing over swaps segments of DNA leading to new variations – it separates genes that are linked; Independent assortment- the way the chromosomes line up in meiosis is completely random, Diploid – keeps recessive genes in a population
    32. Mutations – new alleles are created
    33. Sporophyteà meiosis à spores à gametophyte à egg and sperm à fertilization à zygote à sporophyte
    34. Gametophyte
    35. Male gametophyte is antheridia; female gametophyte is archegonia
    36. Meiosis
    37. Lytic cycle is when the virus is replicating and explodes out of the cell; lysogenic cycle is when the virus is dormant
    38. Yes
    39. Produce a protein that can – bind to kinases and stop them from binding with the cyclins; activate miRNA’s ; turn on genes to repair the DNA; make the cell commit apoptosis
    40. Cancer causing genes 
    41. No
    42. G protein receptors can only activate one enzyme but tyrosine kinases receptors can activate several enzymes with one signal


    AP Biology Answer Key for 4A5 & 4A6 Ecology Review Sheet


    1. No; Yes
    2. Competition, one can outcompete and eliminate the other
    3. Atoms, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
    4. Recycle matter; decomposers
    5. Each level is a trophic level, (EX: producer, primary consumer, etc.)
    6. Energy is lost every time you move up a level, only 10% passed on
    7. Highest consumer
    8. Highest consumer
    9. Species that exhibit more than expected impact on the ecosystem, anchors of the stability of the ecosystem, if removed, the whole ecosystem collapses
    10. Look at your notes. (S curve)  lag, acceleration, deceleration, levels off at carrying capacity
    11. Starts at deceleration and through carrying capacity
    12. In between acceleration and deceleration
    13. Natural disasters, earthquake, fire, etc.
    14. Bacteria
    15. Organic compounds (food)
    16. Succession
    17. Both increase
    18. Climax community is established but undergoes catastrophic event like fire but doesn’t start over from nothing, seeds and soil still exist and will rebuild to a new climax community
    19. Opportunistic, exponential growth, many offspring, no parental care, population crashes, set up environment for k species (ex: bacteria, insects)
    20. Stable population at carrying capacity, logistic growth, few offspring, extensive parental care
    21. Warning coloration
    22. Look at your notes
    23. Type 1, die of old age  Type 2, die at steady rate at all ages  Type 3, most die in childhood
    24. Look at your notes
    25. Maximum Growth potential under ideal conditions
    26. Maximum number the environment can support
    27. Clumped, uniform, or random
    28. Where an organism lives
    29. The role an organism plays in the environment
    30. Bottom is producers, then going up, primary consumers, secondary consumers, etc.
    31. Exponential growth (J curve)
    32. Global warming: CO2, burning fossil fuels, higher temperatures and sea level rising
    33. Mullerian: all species have the same defense, (Ex: stinging) and they all look alike EX: honey bee and bumble bee    Batesian: One species has the defense but the other species does NOT but because it looks like the one with the defense, it is left alone  EX: monarch and viceroy butterfly

    AP Biology Answer Key for 3D &3E Review Sheet

    1. Skin, mucus, cilia, saliva, stomach acid, etc.
    2. Inflammatory response, phagocytes
    3. Antibodies, B cells, T cells
    4. Third line of defense is specific, First and second are non-specific
    5. They become mixed with the invaders and you get both markers on the surface (weird)
    6. The question should say react to #5 and it will attack and destroy it
    7. Blood, saliva (fluids in body)
    8. When the immune system attacks its own body
    9. When the immune system attacks harmless invaders
    10. Dead virus is injected into body which stimulates B cells to make antibodies and memory B cells are formed to destroy future invasions before they make you sick.
    11. Cell mediated involves cell to cell contact and humoral involves the blood
    12. T cells
    13. B cells
    14. Insulin lowers levels; Glucagon raises levels
    15. Liver; Insulin will make liver store excess glucose as glycogen; Glucagon will make liver breakdown glycogen and release the glucose
    16. Z lines on the side, actin attached to z lines, myosin in between and thicker (See your notes)
    17. actin are the circles, the rope-like one is tropomyosin, and the cups are the troponin (See your notes)
    18. Ca++ binds to the troponin cups and lifts the tropomyoson up revealing binding sites (See your notes)
    19. ATP
    20. travels long distances
    21. they are laid down by scout ants and mark the pathway to food and back to the anthill, ants can get food and return without getting lost, this provides more food for survival in order to reproduce and pass on genes
    22. Increased vigilance, defense, hunt bigger prey
    23. Silverback gorilla gets first food and mates but is the first to fight to protect group, every member has a status so no fighting, it icreases fitness because the strongest gets to mate first and pass the best genes to next generation
    24. it prevents fighting and injuries so individuals can survive and have a chance to reproduce
    25. WHen an organism defends a territory so it has a place to find food, mate, and raise offspring, it helps to eliminate fighting and injuries
    26. unselfish behavior such as sounding a warning bark which puts individual at risk but saves those around it (usually family), by saving family members, related genes get into the next generation
    27. Major histocompatibility complexes (Markers on cell surface) and they are used for identification of self cells and different types of cells
    28. Memory B cells
    29. Antibodies
    30. They bind to antigens and “hold them down” until phagocytes can come and engulf them
    31. Plasma B cells
    32. Cytotoxic T cells or killer T cells
    33. T cells
    34. RSIME is the order of nerve pathways
    35. Dendrites come first, then the cell body, and then the axon; Synaptic vesicles are found at the end of an axon
    36. Look at notes, be able to label resting potential, threshold, depolarization, repolarization, hyperpolarization, and refractory period
    37. Na+
    38. The N+/K+ pump
    39. It breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and recycles it
    40. Troponin
    41. Actin, tropomyosin, troponin
    42. ATP
    43. They are brought closer together
    44. Actin
    45. Medulla oblongata
    46. Corpus collosum
    47. Cerebrum
    48. Beta cells secrete insulin
    49. Neurotransmitters are secreted by axon and diffuse across synapse where they bind to receptors on next neuron
    50. No they cannot!
    51. Steroid hormones pass through the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nuclear membrane, they bind to receptors in the nucleus, activate a gene and initiate the transcription of mRNA, which leaves the nucleus, goes to a ribosome and undergoes translation and builds a protein; Protein hormones (also called non-steroid) do NOT enter the cell, they bind to receptors in the plasma membrane which activate secondary messengers inside the cell that start a cascade and amplification series of reactions with a response of activating proteins
    52. Don't forget to do this!!


    AP Biology 3A1 Part 2 Genetic Engineering Answer Key for Review Sheet
    1. Carries the foreign DNA into a host cell
    2. Restriction enzymes
    3. Cut DNA at specific sequences
    4. Separates things based on size and charge
    5. Plasmids
    6. Seals the DNA together
    7. Makes millions of copies of a piece of DNA
    8. Electricity
    9.  Makes millions of copies of a piece of DNA
    10. towards the negative end
    11. towards the positive end
    12. small
    13. small
    14. Every one of the child's bands must come from either the mother or the father, so if there is a band that the mother and father do not have, it cannot be the father.
    15. Small fragments go farthest from the well, largest fragments closest to the well
    16. size and charge
    17. negative because of the phosphate groups
    18. it becomes single stranded, the hydrogen bonds between the bases holding the two strands together are broken
    19. it is temperature insensitive, it can withstand really high temperatures without denaturing
    20. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms; the unique parts of DNA
    21. so things can bind to them like probes or primers
    22. southern blotting
    23. they bind to specific DNA sequences
    24. DNA nucleotides - building blocks of DNA:  DNA polymerase (Taq polymerase) - enzyme needed to build DNA:  Primers - to attach to DNA and give polymerase something to build off of
    25. the DNA strands denature
    26. the primers bind to the exposed strands
    27. The Taq polymerase builds DNA
    28. make millions and billions of copies of a small piece of DNA
    29. Two enzymes used to build recombinant DNA (DNA from 2 places) are restriction enzymes which cut the DNA at specific sites and create sticky ends - these are used on human insulin gene and plasmid and DNA ligase which seals the 2 DNA's together to form one ring of  rDNA: to induce competence (make host cell bacteria pick up plasmic) add CaCl2 and do a cold- hot- cold shock which makes the membrane more permeable and allows bacteria to pick up plasmid
    30. Attach an ampicillin resistant gene to the human insulin gene, ampicillin is an antibiotic which kills normal bacteria, the rDNA will have both and if the bacteria pick up the plasmids, they will be able to grow on ampicillin so..... put the bacteria on a plate of agar (growth nutrients) and ampicillin, if it has a plasmid it will survive and grow a colony, if it does not pick up a plasmid, it will die
    31. bacteria that eat oil, drought resistance crops, insect resistant crops, etc. 


    AP Biology Answer Key to 2C: Feedback and Homeostasis Review Sheet
    1. Promoter, Operator, Structural Genes
    2. Bacteria (Prokaryotes)
    3. Repressor
    4. RNA Polymerase
    5. Repressor
    6. Enzymes in the metabolic pathway 
    7. Look at your notes. Promoter, Operator, Repressor, Structural genes, repressor
    8. Look at your notes. Repressor should be attached to the operator.
    9. Look at your notes. Lactose is bound to Repressor  and repressor is off of the operon and RNA polymerase is attached.
    10. Off
    11. return to a set target point
    12. move further away from a set target point, amplify
    13. Do they return to a set target point or not?
    14. Childbirth: Stimulus is baby's head pushing on cervix, Response is uterus contraction which amplifies the pushing on the cervix which amplifies the contractions, both keep increasing until birth (endpoint)
    15. Fruit ripening: ethylene gas causes fruit to ripen which makes it produce more gas which makes it ripen more, both keep increasing until fruit rots and falls off tree (endpoint)
    16. pancreas
    17. pancreas
    18. insulin
    19. body cells take up insulin from the blood
    20. liver changes excess glucose into glycogen and stores it
    21. beta
    22. glucagon
    23. releases the glucose stored as glycogen
    24. insulin
    25. ulcers, blindness, death, coma
    26. take insulin injections
    27. K+ ions move out of guard cells, water follows and moves out of guard cells making them close the stomata
    28. sweating, blood vessels dilate
    29. seek A/C, go swimming
    30. blood vessels constrict, shivering, goosebumps
    31. put on a jacket, build a fire
    32. photoperiodism
    33. Look at your notes. Pr is the restrained, restricted one bent over, inactive; Pfr is the free one and is like an X and active
    34. red light
    35.when it is Pr, during the night
    36. Pfr, active
    37. Look at your notes. short day is really long night.  Only look at night side, if the night is longer than critical period, it will flower.
    38. Look at your notes. long day is really short night. Only look at night side, if the night is shorter than critical period, it will flower.

    AP Biology Answer Key for 2A3 & 2B Test Cycles & Cells

    1. True
    2. chromatin
    3. nucleus
    4. Lysosome
    5. Smooth ER
    6. chloroplasts
    7. mitochondria
    8. golgi body
    9. yes
    10. golgi body
    11. false
    12. both
    13. mitochondria
    14. largest
    15. recognition
    16. enzymatic
    17. look in your notes
    18. no
    19. no
    20. yes
    21. yes
    22. yes
    23. facilitated transport, active transport
    24. diffusion
    25. active transport
    26. true
    27. into them
    28. glucose will move out, starch will not move, water will move in
    29. small
    30. yes
    31. bacteria
    32. organic molecules or organic compounds
    33. proteins and DNA
    34. lysosome
    35. universal solvent, polar with positive and negative ends
    36. true
    37. Solid water is less dense than liquid water
    38. Water has a high heat capacity
    39. Animal cells in hypertonic solution shrink, hypotonic solution grow and explode, isotonic solution stay the same  Plant cells in hypertonic solution the inside shrinks not the cell wall, hypotonic solution the cell wall bulges out but does not explode, isotonic solution stays the same (we drew these in your notes)
    40. ligands
    41. receptors
    42. receptors
    43. clathrin
    44. vesicles
    45. clathrin
    46. more stuff
    47. We drew a picture in your notes and built a model of this in class.  You will be given the labels and need to match them to the picture.
    48. We drew these in your notes.  Water levels in beaker and tube will change.
    49. high; low
    50. Ex: chloroplasts: Structure (draw one from notes is ok for structure) or oval shaped with stacks of grana surrounded by fluid stroma, function is photosynthesis  Ex: mitochondria: Structure (draw one from notes is ok for structure) or oval shaped with cristae membrane with matrix center, Function is cellular respiration   Ex: Golgi body: structure (draw one from notes is ok for structure) or stacks of flattened membrane with vesicles going in and out, Function: packages and modifies for secretion 
    51. Carbon: to build organic compounds (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins), CO2, plants take in through stomates in leaves, animals eat food, cellular respiration releases CO2    Nitrogen: to build proteins and DNA, N2 gas, plants take in from soil through roots, animals eat, urinate    Phosphorous: to build DNA and ATP, rocks, plants take in from soil through roots, animals eat food (not rocks), decomposition


    AP BIOLOGY Answer Key to Review Sheet #1B-D


    1. Common ancestor; radiate out into different environments; adapt to unique environments; new species formed
    2. Punctuated equilibrium graph looks like steps; Gradualism looks like a smooth line slowly changing
    3. They have the same DNA, they have the same # of chromosomes, similar amino acid sequences
    4. Look at your packet
    5. The outgroup is the one by itself that only shares one trait with everyone else
    6. Look at your packet
    7. Once again, look at your packet
    8. Anaerobic heterotrophs; gave off CO2: Autotrophs; Gave off O2; Aerobic organisms
    9. D,K,P,C,O F,G,S
    10. Hybrid inviabiity, Hybrid sterility, Hybrid reduced fertility
    11. Temporal – timing issue; Behavioral – acting the right way; Mechanical – parts don’t fit; Habitat – do not encounter one another; Gamete – male gamete dies around female gamete
    12. See #11
    13. Geographical
    14. Periods of equilibrium interrupted by brief periods of rapid evolution
    15. Geographical
    16. Polyploidy, big bad bird and colored insects
    17. Organic compounds were formed from the gases but not living things
    18. Archaea
    19. Genetic code; building blocks; DNA and RNA
    20. See notes
    21. Self explanatory


     AP Biology Answer Key for 2A2 Test  Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration


    1. CO2 + H2O + Sunlight à Glucose + O2
    2. Sun
    3. You make ATP only
    4. NADPH
    5. ATP and NADPH
    6. H2O
    7. Reflect
    8. ATP and NADPH
    9. ATP, NADPH, and O2
    10. Statement to know on review sheet
    11. Calvin (Who can take CO2………. And turn it into candy?)
    12. O2
    13. PGAL or glucose
    14. NADPH
    15. CO2
    16. Blue and Red
    17. Solar energy into chemical bond energy of organic compounds (food)
    18. Light reactions
    19. Thylakoid membranes of the grana
    20. H2O
    21. No
    22. High, low
    23. H2O
    24. When your muscles run out of O2 and you go into anaerobic respiration and produce lactic acid
    25. 36
    26. Glycolysis
    27. Kreb’s cycle
    28. Glycolysis
    29. ETS
    30. Anaerobic
    31. O2
    32. 3
    33. 2
    34. H+
    35. Future energy
    36. Yes
    37. CO2
    38. Membranes (thylakoid – photosynthesis and cristae – cellular respiration)
    39. Chemiosmosis
    40. Glycolysis
    41. Anaerobic respiration (fermentation)
    42. Kreb’s cycle
    43. Photosystems

    AP Biology Answer Key to 2A Energy and Enzymes Review Sheet


    1. Denature and stop working
    2. Denature and stop working
    3. It increases up to a point
    4. It increases up to a point and then levels off, the rate becomes steady
    5. Yes
    6. 8 (1 for each step)
    7. heat
    8. ADP and inorganic phosphate
    9. Energy to run reactions
    10. Substrate or reactant; product
    11. Active site
    12. Allosteric site
    13. Bind irreversibly, never let go
    14. Yes
    15. Activate by phosphorylating them (P on them)
    16. Denature and stop working
    17. Running exergonic and endergonic reactions together at the same time; it links reactions releasing energy to reactions requiring energy or it links exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions
    18. Speed up
    19. Unorganized
    20. Lowers the activation energy
    21. Yes
    22. High
    23. Increasing
    24. –G is exergonic, products have less energy than reactants, will go spontaneously, release energy  +G is the opposite
    25. The enzymes present
    26. Look at your notes
    27. It increases up to a point (body temperature) and then it decreases
    28. Look at your notes
    29. Endergonic requires input of free energy; exergonic releases free energy
    30. ATP breakdown is exergonic; Building ATP is endergonic
    31. Look at your notes
    32. Look at your notes
    33. Remember the do now…
    34. End product; allosteric site
    35. It changes the shape of the active site so substrate cannot bind
    36. Similar in size and shape; different
    37. Endotherms constant internal temperature, can use heat from metabolic reactions; Ectotherms are the temperature of their surroundings
    38. Having babies in spring when there is a lot of food (free energy)
    39. Smaller animals
    40. Tf a level decreases then the levels above it will decrease because they feed on it but the levels below it will increase because they are not being eaten by it.
    41. Producers only have arrows leading away from them.  No arrows point to them.

    AP Biology Answer Key to Review Sheet 1A: Evolution


    1. Review your quizzes, packets, and notes.
    2. P= frequency of dominant allele; q= frequency of recessive allele; p2= % of population that is homozygous dominant; q2= % of population that is homozygous recessive; 2pq= % of population that is heterozygous
    3. Reproductive success
    4. Heterozygote advantage
    5. Flow
    6. Founder’s effect
    7. Hardy-Weinberg
    8. Natural selection
    9. Genetic drift
    10. Balanced polymorphism
    11. Gene pool
    12. No
    13. No mutations, no migrations, random reproduction, large population, no natural selection
    14. Bottleneck
    15. No
    16. They remain the same
    17. No
    18. He couldn’t explain where variations come from or how they are passed to offspring
    19. Random
    20. No
    21. When a small group leaves a large group and has a genetic makeup that is drastically different from the original group by random chance alone; Amish community
    22. Elimination of an allele by RANDOM CHANCE; Small
    23. AA: 50% chance of dying of malaria; Aa: Not affected by either; aa: 100% chance of dying of sickle cell anemia
    24. Yes, it is favored in the heterozygote because it gives resistance to malaria which keeps it in the population
    25. No, it is not favored and has no advantage for survival so it will not be preserved
    26. Directional selects against one end and shifts graph to opposite end, stabilizing selection selects against the extremes and pushed graph up in the middle, Disruptive (sexual) selection selects against middle and pushes graph up at both ends
    27. homologous structures have similar bone pattern arrangements due to common ancestor, analogous structures look the same in unrelated species because they are adapatations for the same environment, vestigial structures are non-functioning now but used to work in an ancestors
    28. chloroplasts were formed when a photosynthetic bacteria invaded an amoeba like cell and they became dependent upon each other, mitochondria were formed when a respirating bacteria invaded an amoeba like cell and they became dependent upon each other
    29. Same size as bacteria, have own DNA (circular like bacteria DNA), have own ribosomes (like bacteria ribosomes), self replicating
    30. When humans choose to breed animals or plants to get desired traits
    31. Directional: peppered moths,antibiotic resistant bacteria  Stabilizing: birth weight, human height Disruptive (sexual): antlers, lion manes, bird plumage  Artificial: breeds of dogs, thoroughbred horses


    AP Biology Answer Key to Review Sheet: Biochemistry

    1. 3;2

    2. True

    3. Cytosine, Thymine

    4. polymer; monomer; polymer; polymer; polymer; monomer

    5. isomers

    6. Carbon and Hydrogen

    7. 4

    8. amino acids

    9. starch and glycogen

    10. cellulose and chitin

    11. chitin

    12. steroid which is a lipid

    13. phospholipid guys

    14. True

    15. deoxyribose

    16. A,T,C,G

    17. True

    18. Phosphates and sugars

    19. nitrogen bases

    20. sugar, phosphate, base

    21. True

    22. R

    23. True

    24. True

    25. True

    26. yes

    27. yes

    28. 3 fatty acids and 1 glycerol

    29. lose the shape and stop working

    30. no

    31. yes

    32. extreme temperature, moving out of pH range

    33. True

    34. high energy

    35. True

    36. amino and acid; NH2 and COOH

    37. DNA, RNA, ATP

    38. Glycerol

    39. Glycogen

    40. glucose (alpha glucose)

    41. 4 fused rings

    42. amino acids

    43. NH2 and COOH

    44. COOH, NH2, and PO4 (look at drawings in notes)

    45. Heads are hydrophilic and tails are hydrophobic

    46. Look at the last page of your packet. Nucleotides; glucose; fatty acids (3) and glycerol (1); amino acids

    47. Triglyceride looks like E; Disaccharide looks like two hexagons holding hands (look at the last page of your packet.)

    48. I hope so; dots

    49. Saturated full of Hydrogens, all C-C bonds are single; Unsaturated have C=C double bond, not full of Hydrogens

    50. TTGCAG

    51. unequally

    52. negative; positive

    53. amino acids

    54. peptide

    55. 20

    56. order of amino acids

    57. alpha helix and beta sheets form in small parts of chain

    58. folds into 3-D shape

    59. ionic bonding, hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding, R groups

    60. when more than one chain exists, the multiple chains need to be held together

    61. hydrogen

    62. in the center of the 3-D shape

    63. Look at pictures in notes and packet

    64. ionic

    65. disulfide or covalent

    66. Starch is branched so enzymes can fit and digest to release glucose for energy - used as energy storage:   Cellulose is unbranched fiber so enzymes cannot fit and is not digested - used as support




    AP Biology Answer Key to Review Sheet: Chemistry

    1. negative, neutral, positive

    2. 1/1800, 1, 1

    3. orbital, nucleus, nucleus

    4. 2

    5. 8

    6. no

    7. none, neutral

    8. neutrons and protons

    9. it will not react with others

    10. give them up, accept them, share them

    11. isotopes

    12. Look at notes, top # is protons + neutrons; bottome # is protons only

    13. give up, positively

    14. accept, negatively

    15. covalent

    16. reduced

    17. oxidized

    18. solid, dotted

    19. gives them up or accepts them

    20. negative, positive, unequally

    21. loss of electrons, gain of electrons

    22. covalent

    23. no THIS ISN"T ON THE TEST!!

    24. REMOVE excess H+ and OH- ions

    25. water fearing, water loving

    26. non-ionized, non polar(hydrophobic); ionized, polar (hydrophilic)


    28. 10

    29. 7

    30. go up

    31. go down

    32. 1000X

    33. OH

    34. 7

    35. H+

    36. logarithmic

    37. Look at your notes

    38. unequally

    39. H-O-H , H are +, O are -

    40. H-bonds to itself and polar

    41. Look at notes, ex: high heat of vaporization; H-bonds hard to break; allows animals to sweat and cool off

    42. different neutrons, different mass 







































    AP Biology 3A1 Transcription & Translation Answer Key for Review Sheet

    1.     Phosphate


    2.    Hydrogen


    3.    Base


    4.    It has the phosphate attached to it


    5.    Hydrogen bonds between the bases


    6.    S


    7.    Yes


    8.    RNA polymerase


    9.    DNA ligase


    10. DNA polymerase


    11.  True


    12. Translation


    13. Transcription


    14. Reverse transcription


    15. RNA nucleotides


    16. 30%


    17. UGC


    18. CGA


    19. Griffith and Avery


    20.Hershey and Chase


    21. Rosalind Franklin






    24.Look at your notes, the drawing of transcription




    26.G cap and a poly-A tail




    28.300 (100 x 3)


    29.Live R and dead S


    30.Yes; yes; yes; no; yes


    31. Translation


    32.Look at the drawings in your notes


    33.Proteins or enzymes or polypeptide chains




    35.Sugar and phosphate




    37.It cannot start building something, it has to build off of something already there AND it can only build 5’ to 3’


    38.RNA polymerase lays down a primer for DNA polymerase to build off of AND one strand builds towards the replication fork and the other strand builds away from the replication fork


    39.Look at your DNA Replication Worksheet


    40.5’to 3’


    41. Hydrogen


    42.The RNA nucleotides are removed and replaced with DNA nucleotides


    43.Look at your DNA Replication Worksheet


    44.A-T and C-G


    45.DNA polymerase I- proofreads; DNA polymerase III- builds DNA; Helicase- breaks open the double helix; topoisomerase- keeps the strands open and stable; RNA polymerase (primase)- lays down a RNA primer; DNA ligase- seals the fragments together


    46.mRNA – carries a copy of the genetic code to the ribosome in the cytoplasm; tRNA- carries amino acid to the ribosome; rRNA- makes up the ribosome and is the site of protein synthesis


    47.rRNA and protein






    50.Amino acid


    51. Codons are 3 base sequences found on mRNA; anticodons are 3 base sequences found on tRNA; they both code for a specific amino acid


    52.Initiator tRNA


    53.A site (A for arrivals)


    54.The tRNA in the P site gives its amino acids to the tRNA in the A site


    55.It breaks off or is released from the ribosome


    56.The ribosomes dissociate or break apart into separate subunits again








    60.Look at the picture in your notes


    61. Look at all the pictures you drew on ch 15 worksheet with construction models or look in your notes










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